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Tawhid is Much More Than Just A Theological Abstraction

700-521089This short read explains what tawhid is, and why it is the central theological concept of Islam. Without understanding tawhid, one simply cannot understand Islam in any real or significance sense. It also explains that tawhid isn’t meant to be a theological abstraction we merely write or academically talk about. Instead, it is meant to be a living, vibrant reality that colours the whole of a believer’s life, living, character and conduct. So what is tawhid; what is its reality; and what are its degrees?

Explaining the essence of Islam and its main pillars, the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: ‘Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that there is no deity but God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God, establishing prayers, paying zakat, pilgrimage to the House; and fasting in Ramadan.’ [Muslim, no.21]

It is also related in these words: ‘Islam has been built on five [pillars]: worshiping God and rejecting whatever else is beside Him, performing the prayers …’ [Muslim, no.20]

In another wording: ‘Islam is built on five: ‘To single out God (an yuwahhadu’Llah)  …’ [Muslim, no.19]

Scholars have noted that the above three hadiths, despite their variant wordings, are synonomous with one another. That is to say, they each convey the same meaning. Thus, to testify or bear witness that there is no deity but God is the same as worshiping God and none other than Him, which, in turn, is the same as singling-out God. It is this convicion of singling-out God for worship which, above all else, lies at the heart of the Islamic faith.

The Qur’an proclaims: Worship God and ascribe not any partner to Him. [4:36] Another verse has it: We raised in every nation a messenger [saying]: ‘Worship God and shun false gods!’ [16:36] Yet another of its passages insists: We sent no messenger before you except that We revealed to him: ‘There is no god but I, so worship Me.’ [21:25]

This, then, is the doctrine to which every Muslim submits, and around which the life of the community of believers revolves; captured in Islam’s Declaration of Faith: la ilaha illa’Llah – “There is no deity [worthy of worship] save the One true God: Allah.” This declaration, which in Islam’s view is the core assertion of all the divinely-sent prophets, is a summons, as it were, to live an attentive and godly life.

La ilaha illa’Llah is also called the statement of tawhid – a word which can be rendered into English as “divine unity” or [Abrahamic] “monotheism”; although a more technical translation would be: to assert “God’s oneness.”

This idea of tawhid – that God is inevitably and utterly one, perfect and unique – is the cardinal tenet of a Muslim’s belief. Now since it is the nature of theologians to try and dot all the i’s and cross all the t’s, precise theological definitions of this all-important term have been offered down the ages. Among them all, the following has received widespread acceptance. Tawhid is:

‘To single-out God for worship (ifrad al-ma‘bud bi’l-‘ibadah), accompanied by believing in His unity and affirming this for His Essence, Attributes and Acts.’1

Definitions like the above reflect the dual concern of Muslim theologians: to assert the absolute transcendence or “otherness” of God, and to affirm that God alone deserves to be singled-out for worship: Lord of the heavens and earth and all that is between them. So worship Him and be steadfast in His worship. Do you know anyone similar to Him? [19:65]

But Islam’s goal is God, not some theological abstraction written down on some piece of paper. To this end the Qur’an repeatedly enjoins on us all a constant awareness of God, even in the midst of our worldly lives and activities. This awareness is expressed by two words which the Qur’an frequently employs. The first is taqwa – often glossed as “fear of God,” “God-consciousness” or “piety”. To have true taqwa of God, then, is to obey Him wholeheartedly, while being conscious of His gaze and scrutiny of us. In other words, it is to be profoundly aware of God, and to mould our lives around such an awareness.

Ihsan is the second word, and is commonly translated as “goodness” and “excellence”. The Prophet, peace be upon him, explained ihsan as: ‘To worship God as though you see Him; and though you may not see Him, know that He sees you.’ [Muslim, no.8] The first level scholars call the Station of Spiritual Witnessing (maqam al-mushahadah); the next degree; the Station of Spiritual Vigilance (maqam al-muraqabah).

Revelation’s insistance on taqwa and on ihsan is precisely so that tawhid may be made into a living, experiential reality and for faith to be deepened and be made profound. In explaining the verse, Your God is One God; there is no God but He. [2:163], Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi outlines for us the three ascending degrees of tawhid: the sublimest degree being to witness God with the eye of the heart, because of the heart being illumined and flooded with faith – witnessing everything is from God, not that everything is God. He writes:

‘Know that peoples’ tawhid of God is of three degrees: First, that which the generality of Muslims affirm, by which their lives are protected in this world and by which they are delivered from residing in Hell eternally in the world to come: which is to reject partners, rivals, spouses, children, likenesses or equals with God.

The second degree is the tawhid of the elite. It is to perceive that all acts emanate from God alone, and to witness this through spiritual unveiling (mukashafah), not by way of formal dialectical proofs that are accessible to every Muslim. This station of tawhid of the elect enriches the heart with imperative knowledge (‘ilm daruri) and hence has no need for formal proofs. The fruits of such knowledge are a wholehearted devotion to God, putting one’s trust in Him alone, and a turning away from all creation; so that he does not hope in anyone save God, nor fear anyone but Him. For he sees no Doer save Him and that all people are in His overwhelming grasp; none of the matter is in their hand. Thus he dispenses with [depending upon] all secondary causes and earthly lords.

[The person at] the third degree does not see anything in existence except God alone. He is absent from looking at people; until, for him, it is as if they did not exist. This is what sufis term the Station of Annihilation (maqam al-fana); which means becoming “absent” from people until one is lost from oneself and from one’s tawhid – that is to say, being absent due to being immersed in witnessing God.’2

1. Al-Safarini, Lawami‘ al-Anwar al-Bahiyyah (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1991), 1:57; al-Bayjuri, Tuhfat al-Murid ‘ala Jawharat al-Tawhid (Cairo: Dar al-Salam, 2006), 38.

2. Al-Tashil li ‘Ulum al-Tanzil (Beirut: al-Maktabah al-‘Asriyyah, 2003), 1:164.

‘Aqidah Comes First! Doesn’t It?

day_22__where_unicorns_live_by_eliseenchanted-d5sbqts‘Aqidah comes first” is a phrase which has, over the last quarter of a century, become a slogan in some Muslims quarters. Yet there can be no denying that ‘aqidah or belief (from ‘aqada: to tie, bind, fasten securely; from which comes the idea of tying certain beliefs to one’s heart in utter conviction of them), is the single most important aspect of the faith. One is not a Muslim until a small set of beliefs, or ‘aqidah, is tied to the heart. It is as simple as that. In Islam, acts of piety follow on from sound intentions, which stem from sound beliefs.

Again, there’s no doubt that ‘aqidah – particularly the doctrine of tawhid – transforms and defines a believers’s worldview and social outlook. In the Quranic estimation of things, if beliefs are sound and conviction (yaqin) firm, deeds will be morally good and virtuous. Which is why ‘aqidah comes first: so that we can know ultimate truths, and that outlooks and actions can give concrete expression to such truths.

So for Muslims, it is against the backdrop of tawhid (God’s unity), khilafah (humanity’s stewardship of the earth) and akhirah (faith in an afterlife), – nurturing a profound sense of responsibility, spirituality and accountability – that he lives out his life. This lies at the heart of his ethics. For him, life, liberty and freedom to pursue happiness are inseparable from them. For a social contract based on the belief in responsibility, spiritual growth and final judgement is, according to the Qur’an, the best foundation for establishing a just and compassionate social order.

The hadith literature details an interesting encounter. Yusuf b. Mahak relates that he was once in the presence of the lady ‘A’ishah, when a person came and asked that she show him her copy of the Qur’an, so that he may learn its chapter arrangements. But before doing this, she explained to him that: ‘The first of what was revealed were the shorter chapters (al-mufassal) which mentioned Paradise and Hell. When the people had turned and settled (thaba) in Islam, the verses about the lawful and prohibited (al-halal wa’l-haram) were revealed. Had the first thing to be revealed been: “Do not drink alcohol,” they would have replied: “We shall never quit drinking alcohol!” Or if, at the outset, adultery was forbidden, they would have said: “We shall not stop having illicit sexual affairs!” There was revealed at Makkah to Muhammad, upon whom be peace, while I was still a young girl of playing age: No, but the Hour is their appointed time, and the Hour shall be more calamitous and more bitter. [54:46] The chapters of Baqarah and Nisa’ were not revealed until I was with him [as wife].’ She then brought out her copy and dictated to him the order of the chapters.1

Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani makes the following observation, having cited this report: ‘This points to the divine wisdom in the gradualness of Revelation and that the first thing the Qur’an calls to is tawhid, to glad-tidings for believers, to the delights of Paradise [for them], and to dire news of Hell for the sinners and unbelievers. When souls had settled on this, religious laws (ahkam) were then sent down.’2

The same point (that only when people had warmed to the Quranic ‘aqidah regarding God, Prophethood and the Afterlife were Islam’s laws and rules sent down) was made by the Companion, Jundub b. ‘Abd Allah. He stated about the method of education in the prophetic age: ‘We learnt faith (iman) before we learnt the Qur’an; then when we learnt the Qur’an, it increased us in faith.”3 Here, iman refers to the cardinal beliefs of Islam, while Qur’an refers to the religious laws and injunctions.

Yet to infer from this that no religious injunctions was instated in the Makkan years, and that Revelation concerned itself solely with beliefs, would be to misread Islam’s sacred history. Yes, the sha‘a’ir of Islam – those acts emblematic of the religion; such as prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, zakat, etc. – were made obligatory at a much later date. Nonetheless, there were certain duties the Makkan Revelations constantly exhorted believers to; and these were what can be termed societal responsibilities and ethical imperatives.

Thus the Qur’an enjoined on the fledgling community of believers to feed the poor, look after the orphans, attend to the weak and the vulnerable, be just in commercial dealings and shun all types of fraud, be neighbourly and offer neighbourly assistance, honour and serve parents, maintain the bonds of kith and kin, and to stop the murder of infant girls for fear of economic hardships or a supposed humiliation they could later bring upon their families. It also enjoined speaking truthfully, observing justice, acting compassionately, and tending to things of the Spirit more than worldly wants.

That societal obligations and ethics constitute cornerstones of the faith may also be seen in Ja‘far’s reply to the Negus, when the latter asked about the sum and substance of the Islamic faith. Ja‘far answered him thus:

‘O King! We were a people steeped in ignorance, given to idolatry, eating unsacrificed carrion, committing lewd acts, severing ties of kin, treating our neighbours badly, and the strong would exploit the weak. Thus we were till God sent a Messenger from our midst; one whose lineage, honesty, trustworthiness and integrity were well-known to us. He called us to God, that we should affirm His oneness, worship Him alone, and renounce what we and our forefathers worshipped in the way of stones and idols. He commanded us to speak truthfully, fulfill our promises, respect ties of kinship, and to refrain from acts of lewdness. So we affirmed faith in him and followed what was sent to him from God. For this reason have our people turned against us, and tortured us, that we turn away from our faith and revert back to worshipping idols. When they continued to persecute us, oppress us and constrict our freedom to practice our faith, we came to your land, choosing you above all others, hoping to receive asylum from you as well as just treatment.’4

Now social scientists may frown upon the idea of essentialising Islam. Yet the above portrayal of the faith, as depicted by Ja‘far, does precisely that.

No doubt, ‘aqidah surely does come first, but with societal responsibilities and ethical living; followed by other personal obligations. But those whose focus is exclusively on dogma or ‘aqidah tend to lose sight of Islam’s social vision. ‘They become,’ as Dr ‘Umar Abd-Allah so deftly observes, ‘the victims of an atomistic, one-dimensional mindset that is virtually incapable of critical consciousness and social awareness.’5 As such, he feels, such people tend to have ‘minimal incentive to participate in their community’s preservation and growth, much less the concerns of the world beyond them.’5 Hence, devoid of its ethical and social dimensions, ‘aqidah comes first is only likely to foster a cold, hostile, selfish, puritanical Islam, stripped of its beauty, depth, compassion and brilliance. And we seek God’s protection from that.

1. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, no.4993.

2. Fath al-Bari (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1989), 9:48.

3. Ibn Majah, Sunan, no.61.

4. Ibn Ishaq, al-Maghazi, 1:311-13. Its chain is authentic (sahih), according to al-Albani’s critical edition of Ghazali, Fiqh al-Sirah (Egypt: Dar al-Kutub al-Hadithah, 1965), 121.

5. Living Islam With Purpose, 16, at

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