charging-bull-drawing-23Islam is an inherently conservative tradition, in the sense that a cardinal tenet of such a tradition is to conserve and preserve revealed truths, defending them against attack. Pivotal to this preservation are the ‘ulema or religious scholars. One hadith says: ‘This knowledge will be carried by the trustworthy of each generation. They shall rid from it the distortions of the extremists; the false claims of the liars; and the misinterpretations of of the ignorant.’ [Al-Bayhaqi, Sunan al-Kubra, 10:209]

But such conservatism can be a double-edged sword. For though it may be capable of preserving what is essential or precious, it has the potential – not only of being open, foreword-thinking and inclusive – but of being closed, highly sectarian and exclusive. Regrettably, some of the more hardline, ultra-conservative ‘ulema tend to characterise this narrowness only too well.

Also true is that many of today’s ‘ulema seem thoroughly stumped by modernity: their discourse about it barely extending beyond a few criticisms levelled against the West’s immorality and ungodliness. One crucial Islamic maxim insists: hukm ‘ala shay’ far‘un ‘an tasawwurihi – “Passing judgement about something comes after having [correctly] conceptualised it.” So without understanding the ideas or institutions that undergird modernity, how can we expect to come to grips with it and stand-up to it; or to at least navigate safely through it?

Yet all is not bleak. There are a number of more nuanced and informed ‘ulema, whose ranks seem to be growing steadily but surely. Observing the extremism of the radicals and the cowboy reforms of the liberals with a faint grin of disquiet, they are at pains to iterate to us words of realism and sanity:

The first thing they point out is that modernity is a juggernaut, that has a tendency to flatten anything that comes in its way. Hence clashing with it head-on is unwise. Nor must it be a case of its uncritical acceptance or wholesale rejection. We seem to have an endless fascination with short term political issues, yet are largely ignorant of the wider trends of which these issues are merely the passing manifestations. Unless and until we Muslims become conscious of the larger trends of the age – until we learn to look past the zahir; the superficial externals, to the batin; the deeper realities – we will continue to flounder in our current predicament. One popular du‘a runs: Allahumma arina’l-haqqa haqqan wa’rzuqna itibaahu wa arina’l-batila batilan wa’rzuqna ijtinabahu: ‘O God show me truth as it really is and cause me to follow it; and show me falsehood as it really is and turn me away from it.’

Secondly; having stressed the above, such ‘ulema draw our attention to the following: The goal of Islamic civilisation has never been scientific or material progress. Instead, realising worship of God (tahqiq al-‘ubudiyyah) and seeking to perfect the human soul (tazkiyat al-nafs) are its goals. Its most holistic expression comes to us in the famous hadith of the Angel Gabriel [Cf. Muslim, no.8], where he taught that the religion, in its entire, is encompassed in the three dimensions of iman, islam and ihsan: beliefs, actions and spirituality. Or if you will: knowing, doing and becoming – knowing faith; doing works of faith; then becoming transformed by faith.1

For Muslims, as both individuals and societies, actualising these three levels of human life is the real measure of progress or success. Furthermore, it cannot be hidden from those familiar with Islam’s religious sources or history, that the optimum balance ever to be achieved in terms of these three din dimensions, was by the Muslim community in Madinah during the prophetic age. In fact, from then on it was to be (barring a few exceptions) a downwards spiral. The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘No time will come upon you except that the time after it shall be worse than it; until you meet your Lord.’ [Al-Bukhari, no.7068] He ﷺ also said: ‘The best of mankind is my generation; then those who follow them; then those who follow them.’ [Bukhari, no.2652; Muslim, no.2533] It isn’t surprising, then, that this “unique Quranic generation” is one that most Muslims look back upon with reverence, loyalty and a deep sense of nostalgia.

No doubt, nostalgia may so overwhelm some people that they could end-up trying to relive the past. The love affair with the Prophet’s Madinah may, if we get too dreamy, blur the distinction between what is descriptive in Madinah from what is prescriptive. But that, for the most part, can be mitigated by following qualified, contextual fiqh. Nostalgia for Madinah, as the ‘ulema say, in no way permits ignoring our context and reality. In other words, we have a duty to keep it real. Loyalty to the past doesn’t mean living in the past.

Lastly, they remind us that as the End of Days approaches, various “Signs of the Hour” are anticipated. Among them is the increase in social commotions, seditions and civil wars – collectively referred to as fitan (sing. fitnah). Here the hadiths tell us: ‘There will be times of commotion in which one who sits will be better than one who stands; one who stands better than one who walks; and one who walks better than one who runs.’ [Al-Bukhari, no.3601; Muslim, no.2886] On being asked what to do in such times, the Prophet ﷺ advised: ‘Keep to your houses, control your tongues, keep to what you approve, leave what you disapprove, attend to your own affairs and avoid public affairs.’ [Abu Dawud, Sunan, no.4342]

The Shafi’i jurist and hadith master, al-Munawi (d.1031H/1622CE), said that keeping to your houses … clinging to what you approve means: to keep your head down and get on with whatever benefits your spiritual and worldly well-being.

Leaving what you disapprove mandates avoiding such affairs of people that you know to be contrary to the shari‘ah. This, along with thanking God for averting this sin from you, as well as censuring the wrong with civility, gentleness and patience, and with an inward serenity born of a conviction that – despite things seeming bleak – all is in His hand and is unfolding according to the divine plan.

Avoiding the affairs of the general public, al-Munawi wrote, implies that when enjoining good or forbidding evil is more likely to be ineffective at rectifying a fitnah or a social ill – either because of it being so widespread; or is too entrenched; or one simply fears for their own safety in doing so – there is a dispensation to not tackle the wrong. But one is still duty bound by faith to detest the wrong inwardly, and to knuckle down and carry out the cardinal demands made by religion.2

Scholars say that the circumstance warranting this type of social disengagement have not quite come to a head yet. But they do speak of significant parallels between those times and our present one. So what do they counsel?

By no means are they agreed on a detailed plan or response. Though for a while now, a consensus has begun to take shape among them about the most appropriate course of action. Since modernity is a one-way street and religion is positioned in the wrong direction, the ‘ulema realise that any forward motion is fraught with danger. They are aware, too, of the need to steer a path between mindlessly reacting to modernity and timidly retreating from it.

Priority, they stress, is for Muslims to learn and maintain the fard al-‘ayn: those duties that are a personal obligation for Muslims to know and fulfil. They also enjoin living according to the Prophet’s Sunnah, peace be upon him, wherever we can; and as much as we can. This applies to the private sphere.

As for the public space, the advice is far more nebulous. Must we challenge modernity square on and brazenly confront its decadent wrongs? A mixture of textual indicants, received wisdoms, experiences and hindsights have all worked together to make this a wild or intemperate option, as far as the ‘ulema are concerned. Any policy of militant conflict is more likely to harm Islam than anything else. Instead, do what you are able to do in the public space, is their advise, and begin to develop strong institutions: civil, religious, educational and social. Furthermore, start to form Alliances of Virtue with like-minded non-Muslims so as to help build a better society – alliances aimed at working for justice, accommodation and coexistence.

What this needs is for us to take a more nuanced, wiser and courageous approach; an approach where the balanced and spiritual nature of Islam can better manifest itself. The approach must also be one that allows Islam to retain its voice as a prophetically-inspired dissent that engages the realities of the modern world. This sacred function of Muslims being dissenting witnesses is based on the verse: Thus have We made you a middle nation, that you may be a witness over mankind, and that the Messenger may be a witness over you. [2:143] With knowledge, justice, compassion and courage this is what we have been called upon to do: to be witnesses to tawhid, divine truths and delivery of the Message to a world retreating from the Sacred and plunging ever more into the profane!

1. Iman, islam and ihsan have also be expressed as: law (shari‘ah), path (tariqah) and reality (haqiqah). Here, shari‘ah means: to worship only God; tariqah, intending only Him; and haqiqah, spiritually witnessing Him. Consult: Ibn Ajibah, Iqaz al-Himam fi Sharh al-Hikam (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2008), 23.

2. Cf. al-Munawi, Fayd al-Qadir (Beirut: Dar al-Ma’rifah, n.d.), 1:353; hadith no.626.

11 thoughts on “The Juggernaut of Modernity

  1. Salam,

    Jazak Allah for this. You said : ” There are a number of more nuanced and informed ‘ulema, whose ranks seem to be growing steadily but surely. Observing the extremism of the radicals and the cowboy reforms of the liberals with a faint grin of disquiet, they are at pains to iterate to us words of realism and sanity”

    What would be useful would be the names of such ‘ulema.

    1. Wa ‘alaykum al-salam br Hamayoun. It’s nice to hear from you again.

      While I agree that names of scholars would be useful, my experience has taught me – bi’idhnillah – that mentioning contemporary scholars tends to stir up a huge hornet’s nest. And though I have no issue with discussing scholars with people face to face, the internet is another matter.

      Far too often, mentioning scholars becomes an excuse for cowards and imbeciles to spout their vulgarity against the righteous. Hence, I prefer for people to consider the issues directly. “Know the truth, then you shall know its men,” is what one famous principle states.

      Finally, the last email you sent to my personal email address had no file attached to it for me to look over.

      I’d also be happy to discuss this question with you further whenever you are next in town.

      Your brother.

      1. Wa alaikum as salam Br Surkheel,

        I understand where you are coming from. BTW you may be mistaking me for another Hamayoun, I don’t recall sending you an email. Jazak Allah.


  2. Subḥān Allāh, Shaykh! This is a wonderfully succinct and comprehensive guide to how each Muslim should aim to live their lives. Truly, this article is essential reading for many of us, who have either become unconscionably impassioned in answering every moral wrong observed in the West with mindless rage or senseless fulmination; or those who have abandoned all forms of protest and have slowly begun to accept, and in some extreme cases even support, the ideals of Western society which are a clear antithesis to the teachings of Islam. Indeed, I believe that we should approach all problems and conundrums that affect us in a peaceful and logical way. It is very disheartening when Muslims in paroxysms of passion end up committing acts which are clearly anathematised by our faith, all in the pursuit to show their dissent to all the various forms of vice and iniquity slowly creeping into our society. This article is an eye-opener to all of us – we should not accept what is wrong, but in seeking to resolve that wrong, we should not forget the fundamental tenets our faith and the overarching obligation to commit no immorality and injustice in this life whatsoever – as so aptly shown to us by the sunnāh of our beloved Rasūlullāh!

    Jazāka ’llāh khayr.

  3. Dear brother,

    Salam Allekum! I understood, but didn’t enjoy reading your musings on how Muslims should deal with modernity. This is because you wrap ideas in a variety of beautiful, meaningful yet difficult to conceptualize vocabulary. Personally, I enjoy reading jungles of words, but have a tough time grasping and holding the meaning when knee deep in words used to beef up the message. I suggest you write in plain English, or at the very least have someone trim back the growth to the maximum point before any meaning might get lost.

    Secondly, I think the big weakness of your argument is positioning all Islamic scholars into three groups in relation to ‘modernity’; two in error and only one correctly having the middle ground. You don’t say who they are, yet lump them conveniently into belief packs in order to advance your thesis. This isn’t really scholarship, isn’t fair to the unamed ‘sheikhs’ and a bit sleight of hand to ordinary readers. In addition, you fail to mention examples of any modernizing country or groups who are working to preserve sincere Islamic faith. To your credit, you do say how Muslims should deal with modernity by explaining Al Munawi’s advice but in the same breath invalidate it by the mention that scholars say this time hasn’t yet arrived. There are all sorts of other things wrong with points you make in the text but I don’t want to sound picky.

    My advice would be use less fancy words, get specific with your references and know that modernity is a fancy way of saying change much of which about Islam you can’t, a lot of which in day to day existence, ordinary Muslims struggle long and hard to keep up with.

    1. Wa ‘alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullah.

      Than you for your frank comment. I’m sorry you felt the piece wasn’t very useful. It wasn’t meant to be a “thesis” (which can be seen by the lack of scholarly quotes and footnotes). Nor was it meant to be some deep research on the matter. It was merely meant to sketch the broad outlines of the topic, so as to give us some idea of what we face and what we can or should be doing. That many specific details have been left out (unnamed sheikhs, countries, and deeds to be done) isn’t very surprising, given that it was only meat to be reflections or musings! You’re probably right, that without such details and depth, how much benefit can a piece like this really be.

      As for the language issue (knee deep in words to beef up the points, fancy words, etc.), then I find that a little harder to agree with. You are going to have to give examples of where I’ve used “fancy” words. Isn’t that slightly subjective? Peoples’ levels of English vary considerably: what is fancy to some, may not be to others. Given that the blog piece (and the blog itself) is widely read, and you are the first to actually complain to me about the level of English, then perhaps it’s not as great a problem as you imagine? And Allah knows best.

      Much like yourself, there were other observations I could make, but it would most certainly have sounded “picky”, as you so nicely put it.

      Regardless of all that, I once again thank you for you kind criticisms and brotherly concern; please do continue to visit the page and offer your advice (and du’as). I ask Allah that He keep our hearts united in His obedience and loving submission.

      May Allah forgive me for my shortcomings and improve the clarity of my words and writings, and bind our hearts in brotherhood. Indeed, He is the One to hear, and the One to respond.

      Your brother,

      Surkheel (Abu Aaliyah)

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